Cultivation of the Californian Red Worms for producing Vermicast (Vermicompost)


 

For what purpose are cultivated the worms?

The cultivation of the worms is done for two purposes:

 

 

The First purpose  ; The cultivation of the worms is done because of the meat, which represents cheap food with high protein composition for fattening  the chickens, fishes, pigs, or for processing the proteins into flour, which is a remarkable additive in feeding livestock.

Second Purpose; Cultivation of worms for obtaining biohumus in their diet with organic waste. Let mention that lately is worked intensively for the selection of the worms, whose protein meal will be destined for human consumption. But also the bred worms are used as baits for excellent fishing.

Which types of worms can be used for producing Vermicast (Vermicompost)?

The best worms for this purpose are the Californian red worms, or popularly called "Red hybrid" (Eisenia Foetida and Eisenia Andrei). They are created with a long selection by American scientists. Even though they are small in size, from 6 to 8 cm and almost weigh 1 gram, they are exceptionally a fast pace of breeding, which creates a lot of (amount of protein - meat) and also a production of casting which is not nearly able to provide a different kind of worms.

What materials can be used as food for the worms for the benefit of Vermicast (Vermicompost)?

The worms are fed with any kind of waste of organic origin, which are able through the influence of natural factors (water, air, and bacteria) to boil and decompose further into their constituent elements. Among them are: livestock manure, waste grain, fruit and vegetable waste, organic waste from urban trash, leaves of deciduous trees, sewage sludge and more. Livestock manure is natural habitat and food for the worms, therefore remains the most important production of the worm casting.

How are cultivated worms, or what we need to know to plan and build a farm?

Today, unlike before, the cultivation of worms is simple method and is accessible to all. In that sense should take account of the following below:

The settlement of the beds

Construction materials and forms of the beds

Equipment and tools needed for working with worms

Installation of the beds

After choosing a place for cultivating the worms, is important the place to be drained (not accrue water) because it can fatally affect. Also it is important the place to not be located under coniferous trees, because the leaves contain resin which negatively affects to the worms. Worms are not able to endure an earth shake and wind, and that’s why they must be located away from railways or highways. Although, the beds of the worms should be placed,, through the wind,, but in that case must be water near the place so they can be irrigated. An experience has shown that a person can work ideally an area of 200 m2 or 100 standard beds. For a period of one year, where 1 bed with size of 2 m2 processed 1 ton of manure with which is gained 500 -600 kg Biohumus.

 

 

 

 

General Information:

1.The new breeder must be accommodated with the ground about min. 1500 m².

2. In the near of the future farm must have manure.

3.The land to be processed and to have clean water.

There is a tradition and an established standard that during breeding of worms, as the basic unit is considered one bed. That bed, as a standard means volume of 100 x 200 x 50-60 cm, pads and food, with about 100,000 numbers of adult worms, eggs and offspring. Such a standard bed is mature every 90 days and then it can be divided in a new bed. External holdings or beds are made in that way so the land where will be placed the bed it is set a net of plastic wire with a mesh of 8 to 10 mm. It can be used any other net material, which will primarily prevent the moles to break through the worms, and also will hold the bed to not split. In the sides of the bed is placed net of metal for protection from pests. The beds are made 2 meters wide, 50-60 cm high, and the length it can be done by desire.

To work with the worms you need to have a shovel, wheelbarrow, rakes, bucket for irrigation (for larger holdings a hose spraying), thermometer and litmus paper or apparatus for measuring acidity (pehameter).  With a thermometer is measured the temperature, so if the temperature reaches more than 30 C, it can be reduced by spraying water on the ground or by making a shade. If the temperature is below 5-7 degrees is necessary to apply a thicker layer of food with more straw. With litmus paper or pehameter is measured acidity that should be 6, 5-7, 5. Each week is measured the acidity and if the acidity is high it reduces by adding carbonate calcium.

The Settlement of the bed is made so that, in the captured bed is set previously prepared manure in a layer of 5-10 cm. Mostly is used scorched manure and after 4-6 months is removed from the barn. This fertilizer before puting into the bed is doused with water because it has a high pH (above 8), so needs to be reduced to 7.0-7.3. In this fertilizer are imported worms, so in that way is achieved a thick layer of 15-20 cm. Then, after every 15-20 days of each bed is added 100-110 kg manure, respectively in 2 m2 such a volume that a bed includes. The humus created from the worms is collected mostly twice a year.

W hat conditions are required for normal development of the worms?

Despite the many conditions as fundamental to normal operation of Californian red worms are:

The temperature which is very important factor, so that to the worms better suit the summer temperature in comparison to winter. The optimum temperature for the intense activity of the worms is 16-24 C.

The water is one of basic living element for the worms. It is very important that the amount of water to not be neither small nor too big. The number of irrigation depends on the climate, so in hot and dry areas the irrigation is more often, while in coldness it is kept on minimized in order to maintain the humidity. The optimal humidity is 60-70%.

The subtract creation is important because if it is basic, the activity of the worms is reduced in   minimizing and over 8.5 worms die. The ideal reaction is from 6.8 to 7.8.

The food has a major impact on the activity of the worms and in the quality of the worm casting. As we already mentioned the burned manure in shape is the best (3-6 months old).

The light has a negative impact on the worms, so if they are exposed to direct sunlight they will quickly die. For these reasons because the beds are formed outside it is desirable that they to be covered with straw or mats of reeds.

From which enemies and diseases can be attacked worms?

The list of enemies of the worms without hesitation it should begin with those who feed themselves with worms and those are the moles. Then follow the mice’s, frogs, snakes, birds, poultry and nereid’s. The moles could do massive damage before the breeder noticed that they have managed to enter into the holding. Moles from a chemical way are not allowed to be destroyed. So it should use special traps (pitfalls) to hunt them. For the worms there are no diseases that are known to the people. Practically the only disease is a disorder of metabolism due to wrong diet and that is called, protein poisoning. This disorder is due to the excessive acidity on the food.

Which are the characteristics of Worm casting (respectively the fertilizer) obtained in this way?

The worm casting which is created from the worms is the best organic fertilizer that exists in the globe and is ideally suited for using it in agriculture, forestry, horticulture and anywhere else where is required the fertilizer. Unlike the barn (livestock) fertilizers, with elaboration of the worms occurs new more concentrated fertilizer in terms of content of nutrients, enriched with beneficial microorganisms and enzymes. So getting new fertilizer without  odor, with completely different physical, chemical and biological properties. Worm casting has substantially less water and more organic and mineral substances than the barn fertilizer and it is easy for squandering manually. Or briefly, stated that one ton of humus worth as much as five tons of manure.

The future of the biohumus determines the fact that by using continuously the chemical (artificial) fertilizers irreversibly reduces the natural humus, so that today in the developed world, there is fear of the exhaustion of that elementary recourse and because of that manufacture and use of biohumus is more dynamic. Considering that biohumus is made by organic compounds and bacteria’s that help the further decomposition of surrounding land, with this humus can not be overdosed and lead to ,, burning ,, of the plants, which is common by using the livestock and artificial fertilizer. The Biohumus produced at our place according to the analysis has: 40-55% organic matter, pH 6.5-7.5 humidity 35-45%, N-2-4%, P- 2, 5-4% and K-2,5 - 4%.

How is used the (Biohumus) Bioredworm-S?

RECOMMENDATION for fertilizing in the vegetable cultures

During the production of sapling it is necessary in a neutral substrate (peat) mixed with 10% sand, to be added minimally a 10% worms (biohumus). The soil in which you put the saplings previously should be mixed with 10% worms, and then to be treated with Bioredworm-L. At a time when the plants will reach for planting, is better that in the holes where will be putted the plant, to put 80-100 grams of Bioredworm-S.  In that case, the root of the plant will be in a direct contact with biohumus. Bioredworm-S before planting it can be squandering on the soil over 100-250 kg per decare and then shallow to be dug.

(For faster ripening and increasing of the fertility, especially with tomatoes, peppers and others that are harvested several times, besides the usual 80-100 grams. humus scattered around the roots, we recommend that after every harvest to be treated with Bioredworm-L. due to acceleration of ripening of the new generation.)

RECOMMENDATION for fertilizing in the fruit planting

Before planting the new seedlings is soaked into the broth of biohumus and water.

Before planting fruit trees is added 1.5 to 2 kg. biohumus in the  seedling.

The trees up to 5 years are added 1.5 to 2 kg biohumus.

The trees older than 5 years are added 2-3 kg. biohumus.

For higher yields and the plant to be more resistant to frost is recommended autumn fertilization with biohumus and in the spring the plants to be treated with Bioredworm-L.

The full gender at the new plantings that are treated with biohumus and Bioredworm-L.reaches a year earlier.

RECOMANDATIONS  for manure in the vineyards

During the production of vine coils before planting is added 600-700 grams biohumus per m2.

Before planting the vineyards in one sapling is added 300-400 grams biohumus.

The feeding of the vineyard is done with 1-3 kg  biohumus per sapling, depending on the age of the vines: up to 5 years are added 1 kg; from 5-10 years 2 kg and over 10 years is added 3 kg.

In the spring we recommend 2 foliar treatments

There where we have system item by item autumn fertilization will be with Bioredworm-L..

The full gender at the new plantings that are treated with biohumus and Bioredworm-L. reaches a year earlier.

Annual and many years flowers and lawns

In floriculture when is planted a flower in a pot is added 10-20% humus in the peat or in the land.

When it comes to loaded ornamental plants in the garden, on the root should be added 50-100 grams of humus.  For the multiannual plants are added each year in the zone of the root mass, still another 100-1500 grams and each time is copiously irrigated.

Greenery and meadows achieve the best look and a density if in an m2 is scattered 150-200 grams biohumus, once or several times a year and to get flooded with artificial rain. For nourishment is recommended spraying with Bioredworm-L..

For the plants in an (open) garden - every 10 days, preferably in the evening.

For the plants indoors (excluding the cactuses) - two times a month.

Cactuses once a month during the period of growth.